David L Hudson, David L. Hudson
Let the Students Speak! - A History of the Fight for Free Expression in American Schools
English · Paperback / Softback
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Zusatztext 44264015 Informationen zum Autor David Hudson Klappentext From a trusted scholar and powerful story teller! an accessible and lively history of free speech! for and about students. Let the Students Speak! details the rich history and growth of the First Amendment in public schools! from the early nineteenth-century's failed student free-expression claims to the development of protection for students by the U.S. Supreme Court. David Hudson brings this history vividly alive by drawing from interviews with key student litigants in famous cases! including John Tinker of Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District and Joe Frederick of the "Bong Hits 4 Jesus" case! Morse v. Frederick . He goes on to discuss the raging free-speech controversies in public schools today! including dress codes and uniforms! cyberbullying! and the regulation of any violent-themed expression in a post-Columbine and Virginia Tech environment. This book should be required reading for students! teachers! and school administrators alike. Chapter 6 Bong Hits After the 1988 Hazelwood decision, the U.S. Supreme Court did not take another pure student free expression case for nearly twenty years. This meant that a trio of First Amendment student speech cases governed American jurisprudence for almost two decades— Tinker, Fraser, and Hazelwood. Hazelwood applied to school-sponsored student speech. Thus, a student play, many student newspapers (that weren’t considered public forums), the school’s mascot, or the content of the school’s curriculum could be regulated by school officials if they had a legitimate educational, or pedagogical, reason. Fraser applied to student speech that was considered vulgar, lewd, or plainly offensive. There was disagreement among the lower courts on at least two aspects of Fraser. First, lawyers, school officials, and eventually judges disagreed as to whether Fraser applied to speech outside the school context or whether it applied only to vulgar and lewd student speech that occurred on school grounds—like Matthew Fraser’s speech to the school assembly. The other question was over the reach of the “plainly offensive prong” of Fraser . Some schools applied Fraser to any speech they didn’t like. In 1997, Nicholas Boroff, a student at Van Wert High School in Ohio, wore a T-shirt picturing the “shock rocker” Marilyn Manson to school. The T-shirt featured a picture of a three-headed Jesus with the words see no truth, hear no truth, speak no truth. The back of the shirt featured the word believe with the letters lie highlighted in red. School officials deemed Boroff’s shirt to be offensive and to promote values counterproductive to the educational environment; they suspended him. Boroff sued in federal court, asserting his First Amendment rights. Boroff’s attorney, Chris Starkey, contended that school officials could not punish his client for this T-shirt unless they could show that the shirt was somehow disruptive of school activities. He also argued that the shirt was no more offensive than other T-shirts that school officials allowed. Other students had worn “Slayer” and “MegaDeth” T-shirts without incident. The reason for the censorship, according to Boroff, was what the principal had said to him: the shirt offended people on religious grounds by mocking Jesus. Both a federal district court and a federal appeals court rejected Boroff’s lawsuit and ruled in favor of school officials. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Boroff v. Van Wert Board of Education (2000) determined that school officials could prohibit the T-shirt under the Fraser precedent because the T-shirt was plainly offensive and promoted disruptive and “demoralizing values.” Other courts also applied a b...
|Authors||David L Hudson, David L. Hudson|
|Product format||Paperback / Softback|
|No. of pages||208|
|Dimensions||140 mm x 216 mm x 15 mm|
Humanities, art, music
> Education system
Social sciences, law, business > Law > General, dictionaries
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